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What is Hypokinesia?

what is hypokinesia

Hypokinesia (Greek “from below” + “movement”), also referred to as bradykinesia, is a state of the body in which insufficient motor activity is observed, which leads to a limitation of the pace and range of movements. Motor activity worsens against the background of early mental and neurological disorders – Parkinson’s disease and other extrapyramidal syndromes. It is reported by approximately 98 percent of patients.

Hypokinesia and hypodynamia are often considered synonymous words, but there are differences between them. So, hypodynamia is a consequence of prolonged hypokinesia and manifests itself in the form of a decrease in muscle strength. By itself, it arises due to a forced decrease in motor activity, for example, during the period of adherence to bed rest, with a sedentary lifestyle, or due to professional characteristics.

 

The effect of hypokinesia on the body:

  • adaptive and compensatory reactions decrease;
  • the functional and structural basis of movement changes (discoordination, joint stiffness);
  • there is a pathological decrease in motor activity with impaired statokinetic reflexes (maintaining balance);
  • energy and basal metabolism decrease, oxygen deficiency increases.

 

In this article, you will learn about the main causes of hypokinesia and the most common symptoms. We will also share with you the complications that hypokinesia causes. And at the end of the article, you can find information about the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

 

Causes of Hypokinesia

The most common causes of hypokinesia are dysfunction of the basal ganglia and a decrease in excitation processes in the motor cortex. A deficiency in motor activity can also cause hypokinesia – for example, prolonged immobilization due to trauma or serious illness. Decreased physical activity is observed in some mental disorders.

 

Causes of hypokinesia include:

 

Hypokinesia of the gallbladder occurs due to a decrease in its motor-evacuation function. With the insufficient contraction of the gallbladder, less bile enters the digestive tract. Patients complain of dull pain in the right hypochondrium without clear irradiation.

 

The following factors provoke the development of bradykinesia:

  • The influence of genetic factors, developmental abnormalities.
  • Addiction to a sedentary lifestyle, reduced motor initiative, neglect of physical culture.
  • Limitation of range of motion due to production needs.
  • Improper organization of the educational process: overload with training sessions, ignoring physical education, lack of free time in schools.
  • Unfavorable climatic or geographic conditions that limit physical activity.
  • Diseases of the musculoskeletal system; diseases and injuries requiring prolonged bed rest.

 

At the risk of bradykinesia are:

  • People leading a sedentary lifestyle – especially often hypokinesia is due to the nature of the work.
  • Those who work at a computer involve being in one position during the working day using only a certain muscle group (as a rule, not affecting the lower limbs). Programmers, accountants, cashiers, and operators are particularly affected by it.

 

complications of hypokinesia

How Does Hypokinesis Manifest?

With long-term hypokinesia appears:

  • joint stiffness,
  • decreased range of motion,
  • deterioration in coordination,
  • slowing down the movement pace,
  • loss of motor skills.

In addition, hypokinesis triggers a number of disorders in which metabolic and general metabolic disorders are observed, as well as deterioration of tissue oxygenation.

Due to the increased excretion of nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, phosphorus in the urine and a violation of the synthesis of enzymes, vitamins, and hormones, osteoporosis develops, appetite and the overall work of the digestive tract also deteriorate, body weight decreases, muscle atrophy and restructuring of the cardiovascular system occur. Over time, hypokinesis is aggravated by disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system and a decrease in the tone of the cerebral cortex, later the emotional background begins to suffer, irritability, tearfulness, vulnerability, mood swings, anxiety, insomnia appear, conflicts increase, and social adaptability decreases.

 

Hypokinesia of the Ventricles of the Heart

Decreased left ventricular range of motion is also classified as hypokinesia. Zones of hypokinesia during echocardiography indicate either acute or previous myocardial infarction (postinfarction cardiosclerosis), myocardial ischemia, thickening of the myocardial walls. Disturbances of local contractility of the segments of the left ventricle in patients with coronary heart disease are assessed on a five-point scale:

  • Normal contractility,
  • Moderate hypokinesia,
  • Severe hypokinesia,
  • Akinesia (lack of movement),
  • Dyskinesia (a segment of the myocardium does not move in the desired direction but in the opposite one).

 

Hypokinesia of the right ventricle is detected in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Studies have shown that the presence of right ventricular hypokinesia in patients with acute PE doubles the risk of mortality within the next month. This fact makes it possible to identify high-risk patients who appear to be stable.

 

What are the Complications of Hypokinesia?

  • There are significant changes in tissue respiration in the muscles, which ultimately affect the value of the total gas exchange. A decrease in the intensity of gas exchange entails a decrease in pulmonary ventilation. Due to changes in the processes of energy metabolism, biological oxidation, and general gas exchange, the efficiency of gas exchange and the working capacity of a person as a whole decrease.

 

  • Another essential link in bradykinesia is structural changes in organs and systems. “Atrophy from disuse” appears, which mainly affects the skeletal muscles and the heart muscles since the main blow of hypokinesia is applied to the muscular system. A decrease in the function of muscle fibers entails a decrease in the constant level of stimulation of synthetic processes in a functioning organ. In these cases, the production of metabolites and the activity of enzymes decrease, aimed at activating processes in a functioning organ. 

 

  • Under conditions of hypokinesia, protein synthesis is weakened according to the “DNA – RNA – protein” scheme (deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids). The processes of catabolism begin to prevail over the processes of anabolism. As a result, muscle mass decreases, and a person’s body weight decreases.

 

  • Limiting the volume of muscle activity leads to a significant decrease in muscle impulse. That means pronounced atrophic and dystrophic changes are observed in muscle fibers, muscle strength, static and dynamic endurance, muscle tone is noticeably reduced, the preservation of motor skills and coordination of movements are impaired. Changes occur even in such simple acts of biomechanics as maintaining an upright posture, walking, lifting from a prone position to a sitting and standing. 

 

  • With a prolonged decrease in motor activity in functionally underloaded tissues (skeletal muscle, myocardium, tendon), typical aging disorders can occur. Therefore, when the range of motion in the muscular system is limited, structural, energy and regulatory functions suffer.

 

Decreased physical activity has a strong enough effect on the human body. The variety of sources of movement deficit, the level of its severity, and duration are the reasons for a rather wide range of changes in the body – from adaptive-physiological to pathological. In everyday life, the deficit of motor activity at first only leads to the adaptation of human physiology and its transition to a new level of functioning. Such a restructuring, at first glance, does not affect the human condition, but under conditions that go beyond the usual, if it is necessary to use the reserve potential of the body, the effect of hypokinesia manifests itself. A further limitation of motor activity leads to the emergence of a pre-pathological condition.

 

Diagnostics

The doctor carefully examines the patient to establish a diagnosis, and if necessary, he prescribes:

  • ECG,
  • EEG,
  • CT or MRI of the brain,
  • Electromyography.

In most patients with hypokinesis, the face has a mask-like expression, when walking, the hands do not participate, but hang down along the body if it is necessary to turn around, then such a patient turns around with his whole body at once, and does not turn his head. Quite often, tremor of the arms at rest is found, the muscles of the limbs are stubborn and bend with considerable effort, posture is changed, scoliosis is possible, the head is extended forward, the shoulders are stooped. There may be partial or complete paralysis and paresis of the limbs, speech impairment, decreased concentration, memory impairment.

hypokinesia treatment

 

Hypokinesia Treatment

Treatment is based on the severity of hypokinesia:

  • If the disease does not have pronounced consequences and the degree of decrease in a person’s activity is not high, then it is enough just to change the living conditions and energetically engage in dynamic activities – sports, walking, hiking, and other active activities.

 

  • If hypokinesia is expressed as a consequence of any disease and the decrease in motor activity is more significant, then, first of all, in the treatment of hypokinesia, measures should be included to eliminate the cause of the appearance. For example, drug therapy for the movement manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

 

Most often, the treatment of hypokinesia is carried out in combination with drug therapy and physical activity, using physiotherapy exercises. Prescribed drugs of the level of neurotransmitters, which regulate muscle tone and increase neuromuscular conduction.

Conservative techniques are used to treat hypotonic dyskinesia. In addition to drugs that normalize the functions of the biliary tract, the doctor prescribes a diet and also gives recommendations for normalizing the daily regimen. In addition, the patient should adjust his physical activity.

For preventive purposes, in order to avoid such serious consequences as myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and diseases of the joints and bones, it is necessary to drink properly, avoid overeating and fatty foods, and lead an active lifestyle. And if working or living conditions limit your activity, you need to reconsider your attitude to work and rest, change them to more mobile and necessary for your health. In any case, if you find characteristic symptoms or problems with your nervous system, contact an experienced neurologist.

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Lone Star Neurology
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Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been prepared.read more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well together.read more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your business.read more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any cookies.read more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going there.read more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my treatment.read more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to finish.read more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 stars.read more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his staff.read more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best treatment.read more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my doctor.read more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding solutions.read more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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