Stroke kills 6 million people worldwide each year. Some people who have had at least one kind of stroke remain disabled. The prognosis directly depends on the speed of medical care. That’s why it is so important to know how the disease reveals itself and how to behave correctly in this situation.
There are two types of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic.
- Ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot that blocks blood flow to the brain.
- Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a ruptured blood vessel in the brain.
Two types of stroke can cause serious health problems, so it is vital to understand the difference between them. Lone Star Neurology has decided to keep our patients safe and tell you more about the different types of strokes. Read on to find out the first symptoms of a stroke and how to avoid the problem.
What Is an Ischemic Stroke?
Ischemic stroke is a cerebral blood circulation disorder accompanied by an acute onset. The pathology develops because of the disruption or complete cessation of blood supply to a section of the brain. It leads to softening of its tissues and infarction of the affected area. Cerebral vascular ischemia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Such a stroke occurs six times more often than the hemorrhagic lesion.
Causes that may provoke ischemic lesion of cerebral arteries and veins:
- Myocardial infarction;
- High or low blood pressure;
- Atrial fibrillation;
- Diabetes mellitus;
- Disorders of lipid metabolism.
Risk factors for different types of strokes include older age, hereditary predisposition to vascular accidents, and lifestyle features.
Symptoms of ischemic stroke do not arise as quickly as symptoms of hemorrhagic brain damage. Its manifestations:
- Drowsiness, deafness;
- Brief fainting;
- Headache, dizziness;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Pain in the eyes, which increases with movement;
- Sweating, hot flashes, dry mouth.
Depending on which area of the brain is affected, there are different neurological manifestations of ischemia. Lower and upper extremities are affected to a greater or lesser degree, there is paresis of the tongue and face, and visual or auditory function is impaired.
What Are the Types of Ischemic Strokes?
Four pathogenetic subtypes of ischemic stroke are distinguished: atherothrombotic (due to atherosclerosis of large arteries), cardioembolic, lacunar (due to perforating artery occlusion), the stroke of other established etiology.
- If small blood vessels in the brain have been affected by the stroke, this subtype of stroke is called a lacunar stroke. This subtype of stroke accounts for 25% of all ischemic strokes.
- Suppose large cerebral vessels were affected by the stroke. This subtype of stroke is called atherosclerotic or atherothrombotic. Such strokes account for a quarter (25%) of all ischemic strokes.
- A separate subtype of stroke is cardioembolic stroke. A blood clot causes it in the heart or aorta that has reached the brain and blocked blood flow to the brain.
- Rare or cryptogenic subtypes of stroke are distinguished separately. Various congenital abnormalities provoke them, destruction of vessel walls, increased blood clotting, etc.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when symptoms are similar to an ischemic stroke. A TIA usually causes severe damage and lasts briefly, up to a few minutes.
These symptoms may often be called a micro stroke, but from the body’s side, it is a warning that you need to change something in your life.
Since a TIA is like a stroke warning, most symptoms disappear within an hour. TIA symptoms may resemble those found in the early stages of ischemic stroke:
- Weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body
- Slurred or distorted speech or difficulty understanding others
- Blindness in one or both eyes or double vision
- Dizziness or loss of balance or coordination
There may be more than one TIA over some time. For the first symptoms, we recommend you go to the hospital to rule out the risk of strokes.
Read about the best foods that prevent stroke in our other article.
What Is a Hemorrhagic Stroke?
A hemorrhagic stroke is bleeding into the cranial cavity. The most common cause of a ruptured vessel is high blood pressure. Of the two kinds of strokes, this one is much less common than ischemic stroke. Other triggering factors include:
- Malformation of the cerebral vessels;
- Systemic connective tissue diseases;
- Taking certain medications;
- Amyloid angiopathy.
The onset of the pathology is acute; most often, the manifestation occurs against a background of high blood pressure. The person has severe headaches and dizziness accompanied by vomiting or nausea. This condition quickly changes to deafness and loss of consciousness, up to the development of a coma. Seizures are also possible.
Neurological symptoms manifest as memory loss, impaired sensitivity, and speech function. On the opposite side of the lesion, one side of the body loses the ability to function normally. It affects not only the muscles of the trunk but also the face.
This kind of stroke is hard to bear. It manifests as a rupture of blood into the ventricles of the brain.
The patient develops symptoms of meningitis, and convulsions occur. They quickly lose consciousness.
The following three weeks after a stroke are considered the most difficult. During this time, cerebral edema progresses. It is the leading cause of death in patients.
Beginning in the fourth week, in survivors, the symptoms of the lesion take on a reversed course. From this time, patients can assess the severity of the brain lesion. These determine the degree of disability to assign to patients.
For more detailed information about stroke, read about 5 types of stroke in our LoneStar blog.
What Are the Types of Hemorrhagic Strokes?
Depending on the form of bleeding, there are:
- Intracerebral. Bleeding in the substance of the brain.
- Subarachnoid. Forms a hematoma in the cavity between the meninx serosa and meninx vasculosa.
- Subdural. Bleeding in the space between the meninx serosa and meninx fibrosa of the brain.
- Epidural. Accumulation of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the meninx fibrosa.
According to the localization of the focus of the lesion, stroke is distinguished:
- Left-sided. The emotional sphere is affected. Problems with logic, speech, and lethargy are characteristic. Movement in the extremities may be impaired.
- Right-sided. Symptoms occur on the side opposite the focus. Motor functions are affected.
Lone Star Neurology Can Help You
As you can see, two types of strokes are severe and detrimental to a person’s health. If you care about yourself and don’t want to have a stroke, come to Lone Star Neurology, for a body checkup. We have leading specialists who are professionals in their field. We will do everything we can to ensure you don’t have a stroke.
Lone Star Neurology has several clinics, so see which clinic is closest to you and make an appointment as soon as possible to prevent you from having a stroke.
- How do you tell if a stroke is ischemic or hemorrhagic?
If you have a stroke, you cannot understand what type of stroke you have. In any case, it is better to see a doctor at the first sign.
- What is the most severe type of stroke?
Hemorrhagic stroke is much more dangerous than ischemic stroke. More often than not, people are left disabled after a Hemorrhagic stroke, and some cannot survive the disease.
- How severe is an ischemic stroke?
Any kind of stroke is dangerous to a person’s health. Ischemic stroke is not as hazardous as a hemorrhagic stroke but can also cause serious consequences.
- What are the warning signs of a TIA?
Warning symptoms of TIA are:
- Weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body;
- Slurred or distorted speech or difficulty understanding others;
- Blindness in one or both eyes or double vision;
- Dizziness or loss of balance or coordination.