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Nervous System Organization: 2 Major Components

Sandeep Dhanyamraju MD
Medically reviewed by Sandeep Dhanyamraju
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Sandeep Dhanyamraju MD
Medically reviewed by Sandeep Dhanyamraju

The nervous apparatus is one of the most complex and vital structures in the human body. It serves as the body’s communication network. This system ensures the transfer of information between different organs and tissues. This system plays a crucial role in controlling body functions. It responds to external stimuli and maintains general homeostasis.

The nervous system organization can be conditionally divided into two main components. Each of them has a different function and structure. These components work together. They ensure seamless communication and coordination throughout the body. 

We will examine the two fundamental components of the nervous mechanism: the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS). Understanding the organization and interaction of these components is vital. This helps to assess the complexity and efficiency of the human neural network. So, let’s journey through the confusing world of the CNS and PNS. Let’s unravel the mysteries behind their fantastic ability to regulate our daily lives.

Neurons: Building Blocks of the Nervous System

Neurons are at the center of the complex nervous apparatus. They are fundamental building blocks. These cells help transmit electrical and chemical signals throughout the body. Neurons are responsible for:

  • for processing and sharing information;
  • for knowledge;
  • for behavior;
  • for the main functions of the body.

These fantastic cells come in all shapes and sizes. All of them share standard functions that ensure their decisive role. The three main parts of a neuron are the cell body (soma), dendrites, and axons. The cell body contains the nucleus. It controls the cell’s activities and has the genetic material. Dendrites extend from the cell body and act as receptive branches. They receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors. An axon is a long, thin projection that carries the neuron’s outgoing impulses.

Neurons communicate in unique connections. They are called synapses. These synapses allow information to be transmitted from one neuron to another. Thus, they release neurotransmitters. These are chemical messengers that bridge the gap between neurons.

The arrangement and communication of neurons in the nervous system organization is highly complex. The mechanism constantly forms complex neural networks. They are the basis of all aspects of our sensory perception. The adaptability of neurons through neuroplasticity accounts for the brain’s incredible ability to learn.

connection of neurons

Two Main Components of Nervous System

The nerve organization is complex and vitally important in the human body. It is divided into two main components. It is the central nerve system (CNS) and the peripheral nerve system (PNS). Each member plays a specific role in transmitting information throughout the body. This allows us to interact with the environment and effectively regulate body functions.

The two parts of the network are closely related. If one part of the nerve structure is sick, the other will undoubtedly begin to suffer. The brain controls the central nervous system. It is responsible for reactions and actions we can maintain and be aware of. The spinal cord governs the peripheral system and is more accountable for unconscious responses. These include, in particular, reflexes.

To preserve the health of the nerves, it is worth understanding more deeply how they work. A more detailed study of these two system components will help you with this.

Central nervous system (CNS)

The central nervous organization (CNS) is the control center for the main components of the nervous system. It is responsible for processing and integrating information. It consists of two main components: the brain and the spinal cord.

  • Brain. It is often called the “command center” of the body. It is a very complex and organized body. The brain controls various cognitive, sensory, and motor functions. It processes and interprets information received from the senses. It allows us to perceive and understand the world around us. The brain plays a critical role in memory, learning, decision-making, emotions, and consciousness.
  • Spinal cord. It is a long cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers. It stretches along the spine from the base of the brain to the lower back. It serves as a link between the brain and the rest of the body. It transmits sensory information from the body to the brain. It also transmits movement commands from the brain to muscles and organs. The spinal cord also coordinates reflex actions. This provides quick responses to certain stimuli without involving the brain.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

This is an extensive network of nerves and ganglia. They leave the central neural network and connect it to various body parts. It acts as a communication bridge. This facilitates the transmission of information between the central nervous apparatus and the organs located throughout the body. Before going to interesting facts about the nervous system, you need to know its departments:

  • Sensory (afferent) department. It is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body’s sensory organs. These include the skin, eyes, ears, and taste buds. This information includes sensory perceptions.
  • Motor (different) department. The motor department of the PNS handles transmitting motor commands. It controls voluntary movements. It also controls involuntary actions. This is, for example, regulating heart rate, digestion, and hormone secretion.

In summary, there are two primary components of the nervous apparatus. It is the central nervous organization and the peripheral nervous organization. They work in concert to regulate and coordinate the body’s various functions and reactions. It allows us to interact with the world and adapt to our surroundings.

Common Nervous System Disorders

The neural network is a highly complex and intricate network. It is susceptible to various disorders. These disorders can significantly affect a person’s quality of life. These disorders can affect the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Nerve diseases can be milder or more serious. Mild illnesses can often be cured more quickly. But if the disease is complex, the treatment will be long. Often, mild diseases without proper treatment turn into serious ones. Therefore, the best methods of treatment will be preventive measures. However, if you are already sick, it is important to consult a doctor in time and start the necessary treatment. Choose the best specialist who has experience in treating your disease. It is also important that you get the correct diagnosis.

Here we look at some of the most common nervous system organization diseases.

Alzheimer’s disease

It is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It affects memory, cognition, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia. It gradually impairs a person’s ability to remember, think, and perform daily tasks. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain. This leads to the destruction of nerve cells and the formation of plaques.

Parkinson’s disease

It is a chronic and progressive disorder that affects movement control. This is caused by the loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells in the brain. This leads to motor symptoms. It can be tremors, slowness of movements, and impaired coordination.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

This is an autoimmune disease. With it, the immune structure attacks the protective sheath of nerve fibers (myelin). This leads to disruption of nerve signal transmission. Symptoms include fatigue and muscle weakness. There may also be problems with coordination and impaired sensitivity.

A stroke

A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is suddenly cut off due to a blockage or bleeding. Lack of blood supply can damage brain cells. This leads to various neurological disorders. These include paralysis, speech impediments, and vision problems. This damages the main components of the nervous system.


It is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. They are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Attacks can vary in intensity and manifestation.


It is a neurological condition characterized by periodic severe headaches. Other symptoms often accompany them. These include nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances.

These are just a few examples of numerous disorders of the nervous apparatus. They can affect people of any age. Proper treatment plays a crucial role in improving these conditions. The main thing is to seek help in time.

Connections of the nervous system

Interesting Facts About the Nervous System 

In the CNS, the brain acts as a command center. It is responsible for processing and interpreting information from the senses. It also regulates emotions, memory, and cognition. The spinal cord serves as a vital communication pathway. It transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body. At the same time, it coordinates reflex actions for a quick, involuntary reaction.

PNS spreads throughout the body. It connects the central neural network with sensory receptors, muscles, and organs.

The nervous apparatus allows us to interact with the world around us. It is complex and exciting. We need to clarify this body structure. The human brain that controls it still needs to be better understood. Here are some interesting facts about the nervous system.

Lightning transmission

Nerve impulses can travel up to 268 miles per hour. This fast transmission allows real-time responses to a variety of stimuli. It helps us react quickly to potential danger.

Number of neurons

The human brain contains approximately 86 billion neurons. Neurons are a functional unit of the nervous system. If we counted one neuron per second, it would take over 2,700 years to count them all.

Energy consumption of the brain

The brain accounts for only about 2% of our body mass. But it consumes about 20% of the body’s energy, using glucose as its primary fuel source.

There are no pain receptors

The brain itself has no pain receptors. So, surgeons can perform operations on the brain of patients who are fully conscious. They do not feel pain during the procedure.

Nerve impulses never rest

Even during sleep, the neurons of our brain remain active. They continue to process information and contribute to the body’s essential functions.

The longest nerve cell

The most extended nerve cell in the human body is the sciatic nerve. It stretches from the lower back to the toes. Its length can reach 3 feet.

Memory capacity

The memory capacity of the human brain is practically limitless. It can store approximately 2.5 petabytes of data.

The more we learn about interesting facts about the nervous system, the more it amazes and fascinates us. The nervous apparatus remains a fascinating and integral aspect of our existence.


The nervous network is a marvel of biological engineering. It is the communication network of the body. This mechanism controls a wide range of body functions and reactions. The extraordinary capabilities of neurons further enhance the complexity of the nervous apparatus. They are the functional unit of the nervous system.

The wonders of the nerve structure are amazing, but it is not without its vulnerabilities. Various disorders can affect the neural network. This leads to cognitive impairment, movement disorders, or other neurological disorders. However, timely treatment can correct all symptoms and consequences.

The nervous organization remains a fascinating and essential aspect of human life. It is exciting but, at the same time, complex and confusing. Diseases of this system are often severe. They require timely detection and treatment. So if you have any symptoms of illnesses, contact your doctors.


What are the basic functions of the nervous system?

Basic functions of the nervous system:

  • Sensing and processing information from the environment
  • Controlling bodily functions and movements
  • Facilitating communication between different body parts


What are the two most common disorders of the nervous system?

Two most common disorders of the nervous system:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (neurodegenerative disorder affecting memory and cognition)
  • Stroke (interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to neurological deficits)


Where are nerve cells?

Nerve cells are present throughout the body, but they concentrate on the brain, spinal cord, and nerves of the peripheral nervous system.

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Edward Medina
Edward Medina
15:34 30 Jun 22
Just such an amazing staff that makes you feel like part of their family. I’ve been going there for over 5 years now... and each visit I get the very best care and treatments that I have ever received in the 20+ years that I’ve been dealing with severe debilitating migraines. Since i started seeing them the number of my migraines has dropped from 15-20 a month to 2-3 every 3 month. I highly recommend them …they will change your life!read more
Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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