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Peripheral Nervous System

peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system is a part of the nervous system that includes the cranial and spinal peripheral nerves, providing the connection of the central nerves with the organs and systems of the body.

Among the most frequently diagnosed diseases of the peripheral nervous system of a person, several forms of neuritis, plaxitis, neuralgia are distinguished, as well as all kinds of these pathologies, which have different topography and are manifested most often by sharp and sometimes mild pains of a permanent nature. By the way, such widespread radiculitis is also a peripheral lesion.

Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are the most common in the neurological clinic and account for up to 50% of outpatients. Not representing, as a rule, a threat to the life of patients, which are the primary cause of disability.

The causes of damage to the peripheral nervous system can be acute and chronic infections, trauma, intoxication, hypovitaminosis, ischemia, hypothermia, compression, degenerative changes in the spine.

Pathology of the peripheral nervous system at the site of localization:

Pathology of the peripheral nervous system

Depending on the localization and pathogenesis, the following diseases of the peripheral nervous system are distinguished.

Neuritis (neuropathy) is a disease in which pathomorphological changes in the peripheral nerve are accompanied by impaired motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. Neuralgia is characterized by attacks of pain along the nerve without signs of organic damage.

This pathology of the peripheral nervous system is mainly due to metabolic, degenerative processes in the nerve fiber, with minor inflammatory changes in it.

  • Polyneuritis (polyneuropathy) is damage to many peripheral nerves.
  • Plexitis is a lesion of the nerve plexus.
  • Ganglionitis is a lesion of the intervertebral nodes.
  • Radiculitis is a lesion of the roots of the spinal cord.
  • Radiculoneuritis is a simultaneous lesion of the roots of the spinal cord and nerve trunks.
  • Myeloradiculoneuritis is a lesion of the spinal cord, roots, and nerve trunks.

The most common forms of disorders of the peripheral nervous system are vertebrogenic pathology (osteochondrosis), neuritis (neuropathy), and neuralgia. Moreover, those nerves most often suffer, whose trunks pass through narrow bony canals – facial, trigeminal, sciatic.

Lesions of the peripheral nervous system: plexitis

Cervical plexitis is caused by infections, tumors, tuberculosis, and injuries to the cervical spine; it is manifested by pain and sensory disturbances in the occiput, ear, neck, upper scapula, and shoulder. This plexitis is characterized by dysfunctions of the phrenic nerve (respiratory failure, hiccups, complete or partial immobility of the diaphragm).

Shoulder plexitis occurs after shoulder injuries, collarbone fracture, infections, pathology of the spine and lungs. Depending on the localization of the lesion, upper, lower, and total brachial plexitis is distinguished. 

Upper (Duchenne-Erb paralysis) is manifested by pain in the upper third of the shoulder, decreased reflex with t. Biceps, difficulty in shoulder abduction, supination, flexion of the arm at the elbow, and impaired sensitivity on the outer surface of the shoulder and forearm.

 Lower (Dejerine-Klumpke paralysis) is characterized by pain and sensory disturbances along the inner surface of the shoulder and forearm, paresis and atrophy of the muscles of the hand and forearm, and a decrease in the carporadial reflex. Possible Horner-Bernard syndrome.

Lumbosacral plexitis occurs as a result of infections, intoxications, diseases of the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity, during pregnancy, with pathological childbirth and injuries of the spine and pelvic bones. Clinically, plexitis is manifested by pain and impaired sensitivity in the buttocks, thighs, and lower legs, loss of the knee and Achilles reflexes, paresis of the foot, and atrophy of the muscles in the buttocks and thighs.

Peripheral nervous system disorders: facial neuritis

Peripheral nervous system disorders

Neuritis of the oculomotor peripheral nerve. The disease is predominantly of vascular, inflammatory, diabetic genesis. It is observed with tumors.

Such peripheral neuritis is manifested by the drooping of the upper eyelid, dilated pupil, diverging strabismus, and double vision.

Treatment according to the etiology of the disease, vitamin therapy, biostimulants.

Facial nerve neuropathy. It is more common than lesions of other cranial nerves.

The cause of the disease can be hypothermia, infection, trauma, inflammation of the ear or meninges, tumors of the base of the skull.

 Since the trunk of the facial nerve passes through a narrow bony canal and its terminal branches are located superficially, the nerve is easily injured, and tissue edema develops during inflammatory processes, which leads to compression of the nerve and the vessels feeding it.

This peripheral nerve neuritis develops acutely or subacutely. How can we distinguish between peripheral and central paralysis of the facial nerve?

Peripheral paralysis is characterized by facial asymmetry – the face is skewed to the healthy side. On the side of the lesion, the skin folds are smoothed, the eye does not close, when you try to close the eye, the eyeball rolls up (Bell’s symptom), food gets stuck behind the cheek, teeth grin more in a healthy direction. Dry eyes or watery eyes, hearing, taste, and salivation disorders are possible.

With central paralysis, only flattening of the nasolabial fold and drooping of the corner of the mouth are observed.

A complication of this disease of peripheral nerves can be persistent contracture of the affected muscles and tonic muscle spasm – facial hemispasm.

Diagnosis is based on clinical data, and sometimes LOP examination, skull X-ray, computed tomography are performed to clarify the diagnosis.

Treatment for this disease of the peripheral nervous system should be started early and appropriate to the cause of the lesion. For infectious and inflammatory genesis, salicylates, urotropine, indomethacin, acyclovir, prednisolone are prescribed.

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Lone Star Neurology
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Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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