Vessel disorders also called angiopathies in medical language, are mainly understood as diseases of the arterial, venous and lymphatic vessels. In industrialized countries, diseases related to arteries and blood flow from the heart are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. The statistics are staggering: 950,000 people die from cardiovascular disease each year.
In the case of arterial vascular diseases, a distinction is made between narrowing (stenosis) or occlusion (obturation) and expansion of the vessel or stratification (dissection) of its wall. An increase in vessel wall thickness is the most common occurrence in arterial vascular disease. It is usually caused by atherosclerosis and can lead to a complete or partial closure of the vessel.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. Blood vessel disorders are very common and belong to the diseases of the eyelid. They mainly affect the legs. The main diseases of the veins are varicose veins and thrombosis. Diseases of the lymphatic vessels are also referred to as vascular diseases. Here, the most serious problem is lymphedema, which occurs due to the stagnation of lymphatic fluid.
This article will tell you about what vascular diseases exist, the consequences, and their symptoms. We will also talk about who can help you to treat vessel disorders.
Different types of blood vessel disorders
- The most dangerous diseases of the cerebral vessels are hemorrhage and stroke, which often lead to death. Vascular diseases often do not have clear symptoms, and recurrent headaches, memory impairment, sleep problems, and nausea can indicate pathology.
- Arteries most commonly suffer from blockages, stenosis, and dissection. Dangerous protrusion of the vessel wall – aneurysm, as the risk of rupture increases.
- Among arterial diseases, atherosclerosis is leading, affecting various vessels:
- Upper and lower limbs
- Thoracic and abdominal aorta
- Embolism and thrombosis are the main causes of death in blood vessel disorder. The embolus blocks the lumen of the vessel, due to which tissues and organs begin to suffer from ischemia, which leads to cell death. Also, among the diseases of the arteries, there are dysplasia, fistulas, necrosis, arteritis, aortitis, angiopathy.
- Among the vascular diseases of the veins, the leading role is given to varicose veins, phlebitis, and thrombophlebitis. Varicose veins affect not only the lower extremities but also the veins of the esophagus, stomach, pelvis, scrotum, vulva, sublingual veins. Like arteries, veins can suffer from thrombosis, narrowing, and blockages.
- Vascular diseases also include diseases of the lymphatic vessels. Among the most serious pathologies, lymphedema should be noted – fluid accumulation in the intercellular space.
Thus, the number of vascular diseases is large, and the symptoms will differ depending on the type of the affected vessel, localization, and stage of the disease.
What blood vessel disorders can you suspect yourself?
In case of an aneurysm, thrombosis, or embolism, it is extremely difficult to recognize before the onset of a critical moment due to the lack of clear symptoms, but atherosclerosis, varicose veins of the extremities, and diseases of the cerebral vessels can be suspected independently.
What are the risk factors for blood vessel disorders?
People with endocrine disorders and pathologies of the cardiovascular system are at risk for vascular diseases. Bad habits and sedentary work provoke vascular diseases, which is why doctors pay so much attention to promoting a healthy lifestyle.
First of all, it is necessary to check the condition of the vessels:
- people with diabetes or hypertension
- overweight patients
- workers in heavy industries
- heavyweight athletes
- lovers of salty and fatty foods
- people with high cholesterol
- those who are often nervous and move a little
Every person aged over 50 needs to undergo a preventive medical examination. The examination will also be needed for patients whose close relatives suffered from any vascular pathologies. Do not forget that vascular diseases are often associated with cardiac diseases.
What should be done to reduce risks?
- Monitor blood pressure. At consistently high rates of blood pressure, consult a doctor.
- Pay attention to alarming symptoms: incoming headaches and pain in the limbs, vomiting, weakness in the arms and legs, decreased vision, fever, memory impairment, facial numbness (common signs of brain ischemia or neurological stroke).
- Monitor the condition of the legs: an increase in the venous pattern and a feeling of fullness indicate the development of venous insufficiency; spots and wounds on the skin, intermittent claudication can lead to ulcers and necrosis (at risk of patients with diabetes mellitus).
- It is difficult to recognize most vascular diseases at the initial stage at home. Therefore, high-quality laboratory and instrumental diagnostics are essential.
Diagnosis and treatment of blood vessel disorders
Since there are many vascular diseases, diagnostic methods are selected based on complaints and medical examination. For an accurate diagnosis, the following procedures can be prescribed:
- blood and urine tests
- CT scan
- contrast angiography
- duplex or triplex scanning
- Ultrasound of the heart (EchoCG)
- phlebography with a radiopaque substance to study the venous network
- coronary angiography of heart vessels
Depending on the history, additional tests may be required, for example, if diabetes is suspected. Specialists in diseases of the circulatory system are angiologists and vascular surgeons. You may also need the services of neurologists. Experienced doctors may suspect a specific problem even at the stage of history taking.
- What causes limb pain?
The most common causes of limb pain are:
- Blood clot in deep veins (deep vein thrombosis)
- Bacterial skin infection (phlegmon)
- Spinal nerve root pressure
- Sudden blockage of an artery in an extremity (acute arterial occlusion)
- Deep soft tissue infection
- Myocardial infarction (pain only in the arm)
- How do you know if you have a blood vessel problem?
It would be better to see a doctor if you have pain in the legs (calf muscles) when walking, numbness, cold snap, and decreased lower extremities’ sensitivity. These are signs of impaired blood supply.
- What causes high blood pressure?
Reasons for high blood pressure:
- High salt content in food
- Sedentary lifestyle and excess body weight
- Smoking and alcohol
- Tension, stress, nervous breakdowns
- Blood vessel disorders
- What is phantom limb pain?
Limb pains are unpleasant sensations of varying degrees and nature in parts of the body that are no longer there or where sensitivity is lost due to illness. Most often, they occur after the amputation of a limb or part of it.