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The Brain Anatomy and its Functions

Sandeep Dhanyamraju MD
Medically reviewed by Sandeep Dhanyamraju
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Sandeep Dhanyamraju MD
Medically reviewed by Sandeep Dhanyamraju

The brain serves as the body and nervous system’s control center. It comprises several regions, each with a distinct structure and function. You have to know all about the functions of the human brain. It handles controlling all the vital functions of the body and allows us to think and remember. Also, it is the center of emotional perception. 

Thus it has a tremendous impact on everyone’s life. The brain’s position is in the front and top of the cranial cavity and is present in all vertebrae. In the cranial cavity, the brain floats in a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. It gives it both physical protection and immunity. It consists of two different halves, united by the so-called trunk. In medicine, doctors call them hemispheres.

Moreover, medicine divides the brain into four main parts. We will talk about them in more detail later. So, our article will tell you more about the brain’s anatomy and functions. Also, you can thoroughly look at the diagram of the human brain.

What is the Brain?

The brain is the main organ of the nervous system. It handles controlling and coordinating all bodily functions. It is a complex structure. The brain is inside the skull, so the bones of the skull protect it securely. The meninges and cerebrospinal fluid perform the same function. The brain handles:

  • receiving and processing information from the senses;
  • regulating and coordinating movements;
  • control of behavior and emotions;
  • communication between different parts of the body.

The brain anatomy consists of:

  • billions of nerve cells called neurons;
  • supporting cells we know as glia. It is an essential part of the brain, and it regulates its function.

The brain comprises several regions, each with distinct structures and functions. These regions include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, and limbic system. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres.

Each of them manages to control the opposite side of the body and has unique functions. Although they work together to allow complex behaviors and cognitive abilities.

One of the most extensive blood supply systems supports your brain. With each heartbeat, arteries deliver about 20 to 25 percent of the blood to your brain. 

Billions of cells use about 20 percent of the oxygen and nutrients delivered there by your blood. During intense thinking, your brain can consume up to 50 percent of the nutrients. Here you can see the diagram of a human brain.

Despite decades of research, the brain remains one of the human body’s most complex organs. Advances in neuroscience continue to shed light on the brain’s complex workings. The ultimate goal is to develop better treatments for neurological and mental disorders.

Main Parts of the Brain and Their Function

part of the brain and their function

The brain is a complex and intricate organ. It is in charge of controlling and coordinating our thoughts, emotions, and functions. The main parts of the brain include the:

  • cerebral cortex. It is the outermost layer of the brain. So it manages many of the brain’s higher-level functions such as:
  • perception;
  • speech;
  • executive function.
  • cerebellum. Scientists found it beneath the cerebral cortex. Also, it works with motor control, balance, and coordination.
  • limbic system. It is a group of brain structures involved in emotions, memory, and motivation.
  • basal ganglia. You can see it deep within the brain. It takes part in the control of movement. Also, neurological disorders can affect this part.
  • brainstem. You can find it at the base of the brain centers. It primarily controls many basic functions, such as:
  • breathing;
  • heartbeat;
  • blood pressure.

Each has its unique structure and function. Understanding the main parts of the brain and their functions is essential for us. So doctors can develop treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Read below in more detail about all these parts.


The cerebellum is the center of motor learning and memory. It can be observed in the cerebellum beneath the cerebral cortex. It is where movement coordination, correction, regulation, and automatization take place. 

It is vital for brain anatomy. The cerebellum receives information from all the centers. Because they are all connected in one way or another with our movements:

  • the vestibular apparatus;
  • muscular skin receptors;
  • the basal ganglia;
  • the brain stem;
  • the spinal cord. 

It receives information from sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts. Then It uses it to control and fine-tune movements. By the way, we can walk a tightrope and write in calligraphic only because of the cerebellum. As it automates these complex movements.

Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex has four lobes with unique functions of the human brain:

  • the frontal lobe is essential in decision-making, planning, and problem-solving;
  • the parietal lobe handles processing sensory information;
  • the temporal lobe takes part in hearing and memory;
  • the occipital lobe manages vision.


The brainstem contains the central nuclei of the cranial nerves and controls:

  • eye movements;
  • muscle movements;
  • facial sensations;
  • swallowing. 

All motor and sensory pathways pass through the brainstem. Brainstem dysfunction is commonly associated with:

Limbic System

The limbic system is a group of brain structures. It takes part in emotions, memory, and motivation. We consider it to be one of the most significant parts of the brain and for its function. 

The amygdala handles processing emotional information and fear. While the hippocampus plays a crucial role in forming and retrieving long-term memories. The limbic system includes:

  • cingulate gyrus;
  • hippocampus;
  • amygdala;
  • thalamus;
  • mammillary bodies;
  • olfactory bulb. 

The limbic system also consists of the hypothalamus. It regulates many of the body’s basic functions, such as hunger, thirst, and temperature. The amygdala handles processing emotional information and fear. 

The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and retrieval of memories. It significantly regulates our internal organs, including emotional control, memory, sleep, and wakefulness. 

Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia are a group of structures located deep in the brain. And they are involved in movement control. You have seen it in the diagram of a human brain. Basal ganglia are pair formations and consist of gray matter nuclei. 

Layers of white matter separate them. These are the fibers of the inner and outer capsules of the brain. The basal ganglia consist of five pairs of nuclei: 

  • caudate nucleus;
  • putamen;
  • globus pallidus;
  • subthalamic nucleus;
  • substantia nigra.

They receive information from the cerebral cortex to plan and execute movements. Diseases of the basal ganglia can cause disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s.

Lobes of the Brain

The lobes of the brain, located in the cerebral cortex, play a significant role in the functioning. Each of these brain centers manages a specific set of functions. 

They work together to create a seamless experience of perception, thought, and action. The four main lobes of the brain are:

  • frontal lobe;
  • parietal lobe;
  • temporal lobe;
  • occipital lobe. 

While each lobe has its unique functions, they are all interconnected. Damage to one lobe can impact the functioning of others.

They are also the site of many inhibitory functions. The frontal lobes can be conventionally called the command center of the brain. Here some centers are not so much responsible for separate actions. But they rather provide such qualities as:

  • independence and initiative of the person;
  • ability to critical self-assessment.

Read on for a more detailed description of the human brain functions:

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe controls extra functions specific to humans. These are often referred to as organizing functions. So they include:

  • concentration;
  • planning;
  • reasoning;
  • judgment;
  • the ability to make complex decisions;
  • the ability to find a way out of problems.

The large frontal lobe is important for sending signals to the body’s muscles. It orders them to move when necessary. The frontal lobe is in touch with the limbic system. And it controls human behavior in various situations. 

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe has two main functions for the brain anatomy:

  1. First, it processes all tactile and pain information here;
  2. Second, it’s related to visual data analysis. So it helps us understand what we see.

The brain stores a map of the body’s surface in this lobe. Thus, information about every touch comes into this area for processing.

Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe processes information from the brain through the auditory organs. And along with the occipital lobe, it helps determine what we see. This part of the brain connects to memory, and you can read about its function:

  • the right lobe usually works with visual information;
  • the left lobe with verbal information. 

Finally, the left temporal lobe converts speech sounds into words. And we understand what is being said to us.

Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe, located at the back of the brain, processes incoming visual information. It receives information from the eyes and processes it to create visual images.

What is the Difference Between the Left and Right Brain Hemispheres?

Difference Between the Left and Right Brain

The human brain has two distinct hemispheres: the left and the right. Both hemispheres work together to support a variety of cognitive processes. The brain centers are also responsible for different functions. We often associate the left hemisphere with:

  • logical and analytical thinking;
  • language processing;
  • mathematical abilities. 

This hemisphere is dominant in most people for language and logical thinking tasks. In contrast, the right hemisphere is often associated with:

  • creativity;
  • intuition;
  • spatial awareness;
  • facial recognition. 

The right hemisphere is important for understanding the emotional content of language. It helps with recognizing emotions in others and oneself and spatial relationships. Recent research has suggested both hemispheres play a role in different types of attention. 

But the left hemisphere is more responsible for focused attention. In contrast, the right hemisphere is more involved in broader, diffuse attention for the brain anatomy

But it’s important to note that the left and right hemispheres work together in complex ways. And strict hemispheric dominance is not always observed.

Brain Anatomy Conditions

There are a variety of brain conditions that can impact an individual’s life in significant ways. Some of the most common brain conditions include:

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that results in:

  • impaired memory;
  • deterioration in thinking and speech skills. 

This eventually leads to an inability to perform everyday tasks.

  • Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement and coordination. 
  • Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the brain anatomy. It leads to a wide range of symptoms, such as:
  • fatigue;
  • muscle weakness;
  • difficulty coordinating.
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes seizures. In contrast, traumatic brain injury is caused by a blow or jolt to the head, leading to a wide range of symptoms, such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss. 
  • Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. So it leads to a wide range of symptoms, such as paralysis and speech difficulties.

These conditions can significantly impact an individual’s life, and early detection and treatment are crucial. So you have to know about all things that play an important role in the human brain functions.

While some conditions are incurable, treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Research into the causes and treatments of brain conditions is ongoing. 

And medical professionals are continually working to develop new therapies and interventions to help those affected by these conditions.

A Word from Lone Star Clinic Neurologists  

The brain is a very complex system, so you need to have enough competence to study it. It is exactly what we can say about our professional doctors with years of experience. 

Lone Star Neurology has the best professionals to provide you with the highest quality services. So, do not hesitate to contact our clinic.


Is the brain a muscle?

We often hear that the brain, like muscles, must be exercised not to atrophy. Despite this, it is important to remember that it is not a muscle. This organ is not made up of myocytes but millions of neurons linked together by axons and dendrites.

What is the brain’s function?

Brain function processes sensory information, controls the movements and functioning of human body organs, and is responsible for positive and negative emotions and higher mental functions such as thinking, memory, and speech.

How much does the brain weigh?

As a rule, the brain has an average weight of 1.5 kilograms. Volume depends primarily on body size and gender. However, there is no direct correlation between brain weight and human intelligence.

What do parts of the brain control?

Some of the major areas of the brain and their functions include the cerebral cortex. It handles many high-level functions, such as decision-making and perception. The cerebellum controls motor coordination and balance. The brain stem regulates vital bodily functions such as heartbeat and breathing. The limbic system takes part in regulating emotions and memory.

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Edward Medina
Edward Medina
15:34 30 Jun 22
Just such an amazing staff that makes you feel like part of their family. I’ve been going there for over 5 years now... and each visit I get the very best care and treatments that I have ever received in the 20+ years that I’ve been dealing with severe debilitating migraines. Since i started seeing them the number of my migraines has dropped from 15-20 a month to 2-3 every 3 month. I highly recommend them …they will change your life!read more
Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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