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Multiple sclerosis

Medically reviewed by Sandeep Dhanyamraju

Multiple sclerosis is a constantly progressive disease of the nervous system that can lead to disability. Inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration are the main mechanisms that cause symptoms of multiple sclerosis. However, the exact cause of the disease is unknown. It is assumed to be an autoimmune condition with a multifactorial origin. In multiple sclerosis, the body triggers an autoimmune response against the myelin sheaths surrounding the nerve, disrupting the transmission of information between the brain and the rest of the body.

The course of the disease itself is very varied, but most patients have a remission-relapsing form – that is, there are periods of exacerbation and improvement. Symptomatic treatment and treatment influencing the natural course of the disease may slow down the development and reduce symptoms. In treating people suffering from it, it is essential to stop the progression of the disease, alleviate existing symptoms and keep the patient in the best physical and mental condition. Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disease, usually diagnosed in people aged 20–40, more often in women than men. MS develops when the harmoniously connected components of the human immune system are out of balance. It is assumed that the basis of the disease is complex, and genetic, immunopathological, and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.

Multiple sclerosis symptoms

Multiple sclerosis symptoms

Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause a variety of neurological symptoms. These include visual disturbances (double vision), bladder dysfunction, spastic paralysis of the limbs, fatigue, and disturbed motor skills. These symptoms often appear in several stages, which may be caused, for example, by physical or emotional stress or Invocations, and may vary in frequency.

Multiple sclerosis is classified into different types of disorders:

  • Relapsing-remitting MS predominates initially (around 85 to 90%): One or more neurological symptoms only occur for a short time, i.e., disappear (almost) entirely after a few days.
  • In about 30 to 40% of patients, the initially relapsing-remitting disease develops into more severe disorders over 10 to 15 years. In this case, it is referred to as a secondary, chronically progressive course of the disease.
  • In 10 to 15% of patients, the disease begins directly with the primary, chronically progressive form. In this course of the disease, the developing renal symptoms do not disappear. However, these are relatively rare cases. Mixed forms of the preliminary versions of the disease also exist.

As MS progresses, people may develop paresis in one or both of their legs or legs and arms. During the relapse, patients often complain of surface sensation disorders, impaired fluidity of movements, and deliberate limb tremors, i.e., during conscious movement with the arm or leg.

Common symptoms are nystagmus and eye movement disturbances, as well as balance problems and dizziness.

One of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis that occurs late is the inability to control the sphincters. As a result of this disorder, the MS patient urgently needs to urinate or defecate other related diseases.

Problems associated with cognitive decline are rare in the early stages of the disease; memory and mental disorders concern about 5% every year. In addition to difficulties with processing and analyzing information, they also struggle with memory and attention problems.

Multiple Sclerosis causes

Multiple sclerosis - diagnosis

The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). It is responsible for coordinating all motor functions and internal organic processes and integrating external and internal stimuli. It works according to the principle that the control center directs electrical impulses through the nerve fibers. The fibers are sheathed with an insulating layer.

This insulating layer consists mainly of myelin, a white oily substance. In people with multiple sclerosis, it is irreversibly damaged due to the immune system’s defensive reaction. It means that individual pulses are slowed down or cannot be transferred at all.

The causes of multiple sclerosis have not yet been established. However, it has been found that specific immune cells, which are generally used by the body’s immune system to respond to pathogen invasion, are incorrectly programmed for the disease. They fight the body’s structures instead of foreign ones (i.e., myelin, myelin sheaths, and myelin-based proteins).

Numerous theses about the origin of multiple sclerosis have been discussed, and appropriate research has been conducted on this basis. Associations with genetic predisposition seem to exist, and the role of the Epstein-Barr virus and the herpes virus HHV-6 has also been extensively studied. On this basis, it can be assumed that some factors cause the diseases due to various studies. It was possible to identify several factors that may increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. These include:

  • female sex,
  • white race,
  • age between 20 and 40,
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection causing mononucleosis,
  • type I diabetes,
  • enteritis,
  • thyroid disease,
  • smoking tobacco,
  • vitamin D deficiency,
  • obesity in adolescence.

Multiple sclerosisdiagnosis

A neurologist has access to various diagnostic procedures to determine if a patient has developed MS. However, this is preceded by an accurate determination of the patient’s personal story (interview).

If the story confirms the suspicion of MS, clinical trials provide additional information. The patient’s motor skills, coordination, reflexes, vision, and strength are examined in detail; this allows you to determine to what extent neurological functions are damaged and what areas of the brain are affected. The conductivity of nerve fibers can also be determined by electrophysiological tests (checking the sensation in the extremities).

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to visualize an inflamed central nervous system. Another examination method is a lumbar puncture; the patient’s spinal canal is then pierced between the two lumbar vertebrae so that the cerebrospinal fluid can be withdrawn.

MS can act differently. The most common types of multiple sclerosis are:

  • Relapsing-remitting – the most common form of multiple sclerosis. It works because periods of exacerbation, called relapses, are intertwined with periods of remission, i.e., the disappearance of symptoms and improvement in fitness. There are daily relapses, but also those that last several weeks. During this period, the symptoms observed so far intensify, and new ones may also join them. After a flare-up, there is a period of remission that can last for many years. Over time, the symptoms may partially or entirely disappear.
  • Secondary Progressive – initially a relapsing-remitting variant, nerve degeneration also progresses beyond relapses. The boundaries between the two forms of multiple sclerosis are not sharp. Usually, no remission occurs after relapses.
  • Primary Progressive – a relatively rare form of MS. It occurs in 10-15% of patients, most often in people diagnosed after 40 years of age. It affects men and women equally. From the very beginning, there is a gradual build-up of disability, without any distinct relapses. It usually occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities that may affect the course of the disease and the treatment used.

How to Treat Multiple Sclerosis?

Modern medicine, despite extensive research, does not have drugs that would restore patients who have multiple sclerosis to total health. Therefore, MS is an incurable disease. The diagnosis is not a sentence but a signal to mobilize. Treatment of multiple sclerosis is long-lasting and requires a concentration of strength and trust between the patient, doctor, therapist, consistency, and optimism. As the underlying cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, current therapies focus on symptomatic treatment and the administration of disease-modifying medications.

Contrary to the previous assumptions, moderate exercise is recommended in almost all types of disorders. When MS patients suffer from spasticity, regular physical therapy (physiotherapy) and/or medical devices, such as orthotics, are recommended.

The administration of drugs that may supplement treatment with the drugs that inhibit multiple sclerosis progression are interferon beta preparations, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, glatiramer acetate, and fingolimod. During MS relapses, patients are administered (orally and intravenously) glucocorticoid preparations, such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, or prednisone.

People with MS need pain relief. Pain medications are commonly used. It is also essential to take vitamin preparations. Vitamin D, B12, and vitamin B9 play an indispensable role in the development of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, people with multiple sclerosis should take supplements containing vitamin D. Preparations containing vitamins K and E are beneficial too.

Among other things, physical condition, fitness, and detailed medical examinations are critical. Your doctor or orthopedic technician will also decide which solution is most appropriate. Patients with this disease do not live much shorter than healthy people – the differences in survival time, in this case, amount to several years.

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Lone Star Neurology
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Edward Medina
Edward Medina
15:34 30 Jun 22
Just such an amazing staff that makes you feel like part of their family. I’ve been going there for over 5 years now... and each visit I get the very best care and treatments that I have ever received in the 20+ years that I’ve been dealing with severe debilitating migraines. Since i started seeing them the number of my migraines has dropped from 15-20 a month to 2-3 every 3 month. I highly recommend them …they will change your life!read more
Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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