Mon - Fri: 8:00AM - 5:00PM
Monday – Friday8:00AM - 5:00PM
Saturday Open for MRI
Sunday Closed
Migraine treatment same day as your first appointment.
or
Visit our Healow Portal
Visit our Healow Portal Call 214-619-1910
CALL 214-619-1910

Central Nervous System Infections

central nervous system infections

The general name for a group of infectious diseases with the localization of the pathogen in various departments of the Central Nervous System of neuroinfection. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and prions can cause neuroinfection. Allocate inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), damage to the substance of the brain (encephalitis), and spinal cord (myelitis). Meningoencephalitis is diagnosed if there are signs of meningitis and encephalitis.

These Central Nervous System Infections are polyetiological in nature, accompanied by general intoxication of the body and inflammatory changes, differing in clinical manifestations depending on the type of pathogen, localization of the process, and the scale of infection.

Depending on the characteristics of the cellular composition of the patient, neutrophilic or lymphomonocytic pleocytosis, neuroinfections are divided into purulent or serous meningitis (encephalitis), respectively. The approximately equal ratio of neutrophilic leukocytes and lymphocytes indicates a mixed nature of pleocytosis, which can be determined in the early stages of the disease in bacterial meningitis of any etiology. Purulent CSF most often implies the bacterial nature of the infection; the predominance of lymphocytes in the CSF indicates a predominantly viral etiology. Therefore, obtaining puncture results in a patient in the first hours of admission to the hospital allows one to determine the range of possible causative agents of the disease (bacteria or viruses) and prescribe adequate treatment. At the same time, we must remember that several bacterial meningitis (tuberculous, syphilitic, yersiniosis, etc.) can be both purulent and serious in nature.

The most common cause of purulent bacterial meningitis (encephalitis) is Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae b, Staphylococcus aureus; other pathogens are much less common. According to the primary lesion of the membranes and brain matter, these diseases are divided into primary, characterized by the development of the disease without a previous focal or septic lesion of the body by a microbial agent, and secondary, complicating localized acute or chronic infection as a result of generalization of the process or trauma.

In addition to the already mentioned meningitis with mixed pleocytosis, serous bacterial meningitis includes diseases of mycoplasma, Leptospira, and Borrelia etiology. Serous protozoal meningitis is most commonly caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system occupy an essential place in modern neurology. Their development can be triggered by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Also, such autoimmune processes as multiple sclerosis or vasculitis are often found in this case; the body cannot recognize individual structures as its own, which, in turn, can cause inflammation of the nervous system. The immune system, which must suppress pathogenic influences (for example, the activity of pathogenic bacteria), in these cases, produces antibodies against the structures of its own body, for example, certain parts of the nervous system. The main diseases resulting from the activity of infectious agents include inflammation of the meninges (encephalitis), infections of the spinal cord (myelitis), and, in rare cases, infections of nerves and muscles.

Neuroborreliosis and shingles are common clinical symptoms of pathogen-induced brain infection. Against the background of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapy, Central Nervous System infections in debilitated patients often manifest as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis. Travel, food imports, climate change, and migration are gradually leading to the emergence of rare inflammatory diseases in our latitudes, caused, for example, by the Zika, Chikungunya, or Dengue viruses.

Symptoms of Central Nervous System Infections

  • A person has such alarming symptoms as sudden onset of fever, headache, photophobia, vomiting, epileptic seizures, and, especially if the day before they have had a severe acute respiratory viral infection or other infection, an urgent need to consult a doctor.

In a hospital, a patient with Central Nervous System Infections usually undergoes a lumbar puncture to examine the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for inflammation and identify bacterial and viral agents, as well as an MRI of the brain. The tactics of treatment depend on the results of the study.

  • Chronic indolent neuroinfections occur most often in arachnoiditis or arachnoencephalitis, and often have a viral etiology. They are manifested by persistent headache, low-grade fever, severe general weakness and sweating, chronic fatigue, double vision, unsteadiness when walking, nausea, and vomiting in the morning (often at the height of the headache).

Central Nervous System Infections are necessarily confirmed by MRI detection of inflammatory changes in the brain or membranes, signs of intracranial hypertension in the fundus, as well as specific immunological blood parameters.

  • Identification of the causative agent of infectious brain disease is essential. For this, a study of the content of antibodies (immunoglobulins) in the blood to the main causative agents of neuroinfections is used:
  1. cytomegalovirus
  2. herpes simplex viruses type I and II
  3. Epstein-Barr virus
  4. varicella zoster
  5. toxoplasma, etc.

Due to the development and use in clinical practice of strong antibacterial and antiviral drugs, immunoglobulins, there is a significant improvement in the quality of therapy for patients with inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system.

The presence of prolonged low-grade fever in combination with persistent headaches and nausea, epileptic seizures of unknown origin is a reason to consult a neurologist and be examined for neuroinfection and neurol neurosurg psychiatry.

Diseases Caused by Central Nervous System Infections

Diseases Caused by Central Nervous System Infections

Herpetic encephalitis. The most common sporadic encephalitis is herpetic encephalitis. The main symptoms of this deadly disease include headaches, fever, and various quantitative and qualitative disturbances of consciousness. If a patient is suspected of having herpetic encephalitis, antiviral therapy should be carried out. Without treatment, the disease can be fatal, and any delay in starting antiviral therapy could cost the patient their life.

Meningitis. The most common causes of bacterial meningitis are streptococci, listeria, and meningococci. The disease symptoms are headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, and the so-called meningism or stiffness of the neck muscles. In very young as well as in older patients, the symptom of meningism may be absent. Similar to viral diseases, bacterial meningitis requires immediate therapy, rapid diagnosis, and qualified patient care in an intensive care unit.

Multiple sclerosis. The most famous autoimmune disease of Central Nervous System Infections is multiple sclerosis. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease with axonal damage to the central nervous system. The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, but the success of immunosuppressive treatment with disease-modifying drugs suggests autoimmune pathogenesis.

Common symptoms of multiple sclerosis are visual disturbances, numbness, concentration disturbances, fatigue, speech disturbances, coordination disturbances, spasticity, urinary disturbances, sexual disturbances, swallowing disturbances, and double vision. However, today, modern drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis make it possible to control the course of the disease well. Moreover, the earlier the diagnosis is made and the therapy is selected, the more successful the treatment is. On average, 80 out of 100 patients, ten years after the onset of the disease, remain functional.

Myelitis. Another example of inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is myelitis, an inflammation of the spinal cord. It can diffusely affect an entire spinal cord area (transverse myelitis) or be focal (disseminated myelitis). The main symptoms of the disease are:

  • muscle weakness
  • paresis, including spastic
  • sensitivity disorders
  • gait disturbances
  • pain in the whole body
  • depression
  • emaciation
  • as well as bowel and/or bladder dysfunction.

Both the transverse and disseminated course of myelitis can also be accompanied by transverse paralysis with sensory or motor disorders, depending on the region of the lesion.

The prevalence of Central Nervous System Infections is very high. Early diagnosis, neurol neurosurg psychiatry, and highly differentiated therapy are essential for further prognosis. As in the case of a stroke, in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, the rule is that the sooner you start treatment, the more chances you will not develop severe consequences; this means that the loss of time is tantamount to the loss of the human brain. Prompt and correct treatment can be life-saving.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (No Ratings Yet)
Loading...
Lone Star Neurology
4.4
Based on 617 reviews
powered by Google
Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been prepared.read more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well together.read more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your business.read more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any cookies.read more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going there.read more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my treatment.read more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to finish.read more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 stars.read more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his staff.read more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best treatment.read more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my doctor.read more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding solutions.read more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
Next Reviews

Please, leave your review

Write a comment: