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Developmental Abnormalities of the Brain

Medically reviewed by Maushmi Sheth
Medically reviewed by Maushmi Sheth

Suppose during the prenatal period a child has a violation of the brain’s formation of any cerebral structures. In that case, they will show congenital brain abnormalities and the development of the central nervous system. The symptomatic picture is most often nonspecific. It can include mental retardation and epileptic syndrome. The clarity of the clinical picture is directly dependent on the severity of the prefrontal cortex lesion. In the fetus, such disorders are diagnosed during a routine obstetric ultrasound examination. After birth, the choice of methods for hardware diagnostics expands, including:

  • Neurosonography
  • EEG
  • Magnetic resonance imaging.

Congenital brain abnormalities are incurable; symptomatic therapy is indicated. Moreover, the specialist can prescribe dehydration, antiepileptic, metabolic, and psychocorrection drugs.

Severe malformations of cerebral structures account for 75% of fetal deaths in the antenatal period and 40% of deaths among newborns. Severe clinical manifestations can develop at different rates. Most often, they appear in the first months of life, but sometimes several symptoms occur after the first year because the formation of the brain lasts up to 8 years. Almost half of the cases when cerebral malformations were recorded are combined with anomalies in the formation of somatic organs. It should be noted that prenatal detection of cerebral abnormalities is still an urgent task of practical gynecology and obstetrics. Neurology, neurosurgery, neonatology, and later pediatrics are involved in postnatal diagnostics and therapy.

Reasons for the appearance of abnormalities in brain abnormalities

Monogenic inheritance causes brain abnormalities in only 1% of cases. Intrauterine developmental failures cause several harmful teratogenic factors to influence the mother and child. Exogenous factors include:

  • Radiation exposure
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Heat
  • The action of high-frequency currents
  • Unfavorable environmental situation, causing toxic substances to enter the body of a pregnant woman.

Moreover, many medications and hormonal drugs that the mother takes in the early stages, unaware of the pregnancy, can be teratogenic. It has been proven that most pharmacological drugs easily overcome the placental barrier, getting into the child’s circulatory system. Even taking large doses of calcium supplements and vitamin complexes can be dangerous for the prefrontal cortex. Immune incompatibility between mother and child is unfavorable for the formation of a healthy fetus. Dysmetabolic disorders, viral and intrauterine infections, including those that are asymptomatic, can also provoke malformations. Those that are very dangerous include:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic pathologies
  • Syphilis
  • Cytomegaly
  • Rubella
  • Listeriosis
  • Toxoplasmosis.

The lifestyle of a pregnant woman has a significant impact on the successful course of pregnancy. Teratogenic effects are exerted by:

  • Addiction
  • Alcoholism
  • Smoking.

The mechanism of formation of brain abnormalities

The mechanism of formation of brain abnormalities

Literally, from the first week of pregnancy, the child’s future nervous system begins. The formation of the neural tube ends by the 23rd day of gestation. If the action there were an incomplete overgrowth of its end during this period, the child would experience severe cerebral anomalies in the future. The anterior cerebral vesicle appears by the 28th day. After being divided into two lateral ones, it forms the basis of the hemispheres. After this, the formation of the cortex, convolutions, corpus callosum, and basal structures begins.

The formation of neurons occurs due to the differentiation of neuroblasts, that is, the germ cells of the nervous system. From them comes the gray matter, which is responsible for the higher nervous functions. White is made up of glial cells, which connect the brain into a single functional system. A full-term infant has the same number of neurons as an adult. But the development of the central nervous system continues, with the first three months of life being an exceedingly important stage. After that, the number of glial cells increases, neuronal processes branch out, and myelination occurs.

Failure can occur at any stage of the formation of the central nervous system. When failures occur in the first two trimesters of pregnancy, they can lead to a decrease in the number of neurons, pathologies of differentiation, and hypoplasia of different parts of the brain. Further damage and death of the already formed substance are possible.

Types of brain abnormalities

There are a large number of cerebral pathologies. These include:

  • With non-closure of the bones of the skull, an encephalocele can occur, the protrusion of the meninges and tissues, through a defect formed in the skull. X-rays are required to distinguish between cephalohematoma and small encephalocele. Depending on the size and content of the pathology, a prognosis is made. If the prolapse is small and ectopic nerve tissue is placed in its cavity, surgical intervention is indicated.
  • Brain abnormalities incompatible with life include acrania, absence of skull bones and anencephaly, absence of the brain. In place of the brain, there may be cystic cavities or connective tissue growths. Most often, they are covered with skin.
  • An increase in the volume and mass of the brain is called macrocephaly. It is less common than microcephaly and usually combined with impaired acrotectonics of the brain and white matter heterotopy. The main clinical manifestation is mental retardation, which the convulsive syndrome may accompany. Partial macrocephaly causes asymmetry of the cerebral section of the skull.
  • Holoprosencephaly is diagnosed when there is no separation between the hemispheres. Instead, they look like a single hemisphere, with the lateral ventricles being a solid cavity. This pathology is accompanied by severe somatic defects and dysplasia of the facial skull. There is a high probability of stillbirth or death of an infant on the first day of life.
  • If the mass and volume of the brain are reduced due to developmental delay, it is microcephaly. According to statistics, this violation occurs in 1 case out of 5000. With microcephaly, the head circumference decreases, and there are imbalances in the skull. There may be a lag in physical and mental development, idiocy, and mental retardation with this disease.
  • Cystic cerebral dysplasia manifests as multiple cysts of varying sizes, often associated with the ventricular system. They can be localized in one or both hemispheres. Epilepsy resistance to anticonvulsant therapy is a characteristic symptom. If the cysts are single, they can have a subclinical course, be accompanied by intracranial hypertension, and resolve over time.
  • Enlargement of the main convolutions with shortening and straightening of the furrows in the absence of secondary and tertiary convolutions is called pachygyria. It is accompanied by a violation of the architectonics of the cerebral cortex.
  • Heterotopy is formed if a delay and accumulation of neurons occur on the way to the cortex during neuronal migration. Heterotopies are classified into multiple and single, nodal and tape. Although they are not able to accumulate contrast, they are manifested by oligophrenia and epilepsy.
  • Focal cortical dysplasia is characterized by the presence of abnormal astrocytes and giant neurons in the cortex, which is most often located in the temporal and frontal regions. At the initial stage, the disease may be accompanied by demonstrative motor gestures.
  • Aicardi syndrome occurs in girls, accompanied by visual defects, flexion spasms, and chorioretinal dystrophic foci.
  • With micropolygyria, there are many convolutions on the cortex. The crust itself is represented not by six but by four layers. It may be accompanied by oligophrenia, plegia of the chewing, pharyngeal and facial muscles.

Diagnostic methods

Diagnostic methods

In the case of severe brain abnormalities, diagnosis can be made by visual examination. Indications for additional examination may be:

  • Muscle hypotension in the neonatal period
  • The appearance of a convulsive syndrome
  • Impaired mental function.

Diagnostic methods are:

  • Screening and obstetric ultrasound during pregnancy
  • Neurosonography through the fontanelle in the first 1-1.5 years of life
  • EEG and EEG video monitoring allows establishing the presence of convulsive syndrome and selection an effective anticonvulsive therapy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging- the most informative method for visualizing pathologies, structure, shape, size, and localization
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys, heart, abdominal cavity is indicated. In addition, genetic counseling may be required to detect concomitant somatic defects.

Cerebral anomalies must be distinguished from fetal asphyxia or hypoxia, trauma to newborns.

Preventing congenital cerebral anomalies is to exclude the influence of teratogenic and embryotoxic factors on the pregnant woman. During the planning period, it is necessary to treat chronic and latent infections, undergo genetic counseling, and lead a healthy lifestyle.

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Edward Medina
Edward Medina
15:34 30 Jun 22
Just such an amazing staff that makes you feel like part of their family. I’ve been going there for over 5 years now... and each visit I get the very best care and treatments that I have ever received in the 20+ years that I’ve been dealing with severe debilitating migraines. Since i started seeing them the number of my migraines has dropped from 15-20 a month to 2-3 every 3 month. I highly recommend them …they will change your life!read more
Daneisha Johnson
Daneisha Johnson
22:20 19 May 22
Dr. Askari was very kind and explained everything so I could understand. The other staff were nice as well. I would... have gave 5 stars but I was a little taken aback when I checked in and had to pay 600.00 upfront. I think that should have been discussed in a appointment confirmation call or email just so I could have been more
Jean Cooper
Jean Cooper
16:54 29 Apr 22
I love the office staff they are friendly and very helpful. Dr. JODIE is very caring and understanding to your needs... and wants to help you. I will go back. would recommend Dr. Dr. Jodie to other Patients in a heart beat. The team works well more
Linda M
Linda M
19:40 02 Apr 22
I was obviously stressed, needing to see a neurologist. The staff was so patient and Dr. Ansari was so kind. At one... point he told me to relax, we have time, when I was relaying my history of my condition. That helped ease my stress. I have seen 3 other neurologists and he was the only one who performed any assessment tests on my cognitive and physical skills. At one point I couldn't complete two assessments and got upset and cried. I was told, it's OK. That's why you're here. I was truly impressed, and super pleased with the whole experience!read more
Leslie Durham
Leslie Durham
15:05 01 Apr 22
I've been coming here for about 5 years. The staff are ALWAYS friendly and knowledgeable. The Doctors are the absolute... best!! Jodie Moore is always in such a great mood which is a plus when you are already stressed. Highly recommendedread more
Monica Del Bosque
Monica Del Bosque
14:13 25 Mar 22
Since my first post my thoughts have changed here. It's unfortunate. My doctor and PA were great, but the office staff... is horrible. They never call you back when they say they will, they misinform you, they cause you too much stress wondering what's going on, they don't keep you posted. They never answer the phone. At this point I've left four messages in the last week, and I have sent three messages. Twice from their portal and one direct email. No response. My appointment is on Monday morning at 8:30am, no confirmation on my insurance and what's going on. What the heck is going on, this is ridiculous!I've given up... the stress her office staff has put me through is just not worth it. You can do so much better, please clean house, either change out your office staff, or find a way for them to be more efficient please. You have to do something. This is not how you want to run your practice. It leaves a very bad impression on your more
Ron Buckholz
Ron Buckholz
23:32 23 Mar 22
I was actually pleasantly surprised with this visit! It took me a long time to get the appointment scheduled because no... one answers your phones EVER! After a month, I finally got in, and your staff was warm, friendly, and I was totally impressed! I feel like you will take care of my needs!read more
Steve Nabavi
Steve Nabavi
16:28 16 Mar 22
It was a nice visit. Happy staff doing all they can do to comfort the patients in a very calming environment. You ask... me they are earned a big gold star on the fridge. My only complaint they didn't give me any more
Katie Lewis
Katie Lewis
16:10 10 Feb 22
Had very positive appointments with Jodie and Dr. Sheth for my migraine care. Jodie was so fast with the injections and... has so much valuable info. I started to feel light headed during checkout and the staff was SO helpful—giving me a chair, water, and taking me into a private room until I felt better. Highly recommend this practice for migraine patients, they know what they’re doing!!read more
Joshua Martinez
Joshua Martinez
16:02 10 Dec 21
I was scheduled to be checked and just want to say that the staff was fantastic. They were kind and helpful. I was... asked many questions related to what was going on and not once did I feel as though I was being brushed off. The front desk staff was especially great in assisting me. I'm scheduled to go back for a mri and am glad that I'll be going more
Isabel Ivy
Isabel Ivy
21:42 03 Nov 21
I had such a good experience with Lone Star Neurology, Brent my MRI Tech was so awesome and made sure I was very... comfortable during the appointment. He gave me ear plugs, a pillow, leg support and blanket, easiest MRI ever lol 🤣 My 72 hour EEG nurse Amanda was also so awesome. She made sure I was take care of over the 3 days and took her time with the electrodes to make sure it was comfortable for me! Paige was also a huge help in answering all my questions when it came to my test results, and letting me know her honest opinions about how I should go forth with my more
Leslie Luce
Leslie Luce
17:37 20 Oct 21
The professionalism and want to help attitude of this office was present from the moment I contacted them. The follow... up and follow through as well as their willingness to find a way to schedule my dad was above and beyond. We visited two offices in the same day with the same experience. I am appreciative of this—we spend a lot of time with doctors and this was top notch start to more
robert Parker
robert Parker
16:38 16 Apr 21
I love going to this office. The staff is friendly and helpful. The doctor is great. I am getting the best... neurological tests and treatment I have ever had. The only reason I did not give them a 5 star rating is because it is impossible to reach a live person at the office to reschedule appointments. Every time I have tried to get through to the office it says all people are busy and I am sent to a voicemail. If they could get their phone answering fixed, I would give them a strong 5 more
MaryAnn Hornbaker
MaryAnn Hornbaker
00:26 25 Feb 21
Dr. Harney is an excellent Dr. I found him friendly , personable and thorough. I evidently am an unusual case. ... Therefore he spent a Hugh amount of time educating me. He even gave me literature to further explain my condition and how to follow up. This is something you rarely get from your doctors. So I am more than please with my doctor and his more
Roger Arguello
Roger Arguello
03:05 29 Jan 21
Always courteous, professional. The staff is very friendly and always work with you to find the best appointment time.... The care team has been great. Always taking the time to listen to your concerns and to find the best more
Margaret Rowland
Margaret Rowland
01:12 27 Jan 21
I have been a patient at Lone Star Neurology for several years. Now both my adult daughters also are patients there. I... love Jodie. She is always so prompt whether it is a teleamed call are a visit in the office. She takes the time to explain everything to me and answers all my questions. I am so blessed to have Jodie as my more
Susan Miller
Susan Miller
03:01 13 Jan 21
My husband had an accident 5 years ago and Lone Star Neurology has been such a blessing to us with my husbands care.... Jodie Moore is his provider and she is amazing! Jodie is very knowledgeable, caring, and thorough. She takes her time with you, making sure your needs are met and she is happy to answer any questions you may have. Lone Star Neurology’s patients are very lucky to have Jodie providing their care. Thank you Lone Star Neurology and especially Jodie for everything you have done for us. Jodie, you are the best!read more
Windalyn C
Windalyn C
01:32 09 Jan 21
Jodie is wonderful. She is very caring and knowledgeable. I have been to over a dozen neurologists, and none were able... to help me as much as they have here. Thanks!read more
Katie Kordel
Katie Kordel
00:40 09 Jan 21
Jodi Moore, nurse practitioner, is amazing. I have suffered from frequent, debilitating headaches for almost 20 years.... She has provided the best proactive and responsive care I have ever received. My quality of life has been greatly improved by her caring approach and tenacity in finding more
Ellie Natsis
Ellie Natsis
15:41 07 Jan 21
I have had the best experience at this neurologist's office! For over a year I have been receiving iv treatments here... each month and my nurse, Bobbie is beyond wonderful!! She's so attentive, knowledgeable, caring, and detail oriented. She makes an otherwise uncomfortable experience much more pleasant and definitely puts me at ease! She also helps me with my insurance,ordering this specialty medication and dealing with the ordering process which is no easy feat.Needless to say, she goes above a beyond in every way and I'm so grateful to this office and to Bobbie for all they do for me!read more
Matt Morris
Matt Morris
15:39 07 Jan 21
Let me start by saying that I have been coming here for years. Due to my autoimmune disease, I am in this office... once every three weeks for multiple hours at a time. The office is very clean and the staff very friendly. My only complaint would be there communication via phone. They aren't the best at responding if you leave a voicemail and expect a call back. I understand that this is prob just due to the sheer number of alls they receive daily. What I can say I like the best about the office are the people. Bobby who handles my infusions is great. I never have any issues with her setting up my infusions. She is very quick to reply to messages sent via text and if she were to leave then my whole opinion of the office may change. I also enjoy people like Matt, Lauren, and Jodi. I appreciate all that they do for me and without this team I'm not sure I would be as happy as I am to visit the office as frequently as I have to. Please ensure that these folks are recognized as they are what makes my visit to this office so tolerable :).read more
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